Research projects funded by the programmes Leibniz Young Investigator Grants and "Wege in die Forschung II"

The programme "Leibniz Young Investigator Grants" is the follow-up funding programme to the university's internal project funding "Wege in die Forschung II". The grants give excellent young scientists the opportunity to gain research experience independently through project coordination. A selection of funded projects can be found here:

SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS FROM 2019

  • Dr. rer. nat. Markus Baum (Institute of Building Materials Science)

    Title:

    Functionalization of Zeolithic-like Frameworks as Nano-confinement for a selective Release of Active Components or Capture of Harmful Substances 

    Abstract:

    Maintenance works are an important method to counteract mechanical and chemical overstress of buildings. According to the current state of the art, surface-related measures and the partial or complete replacement of damaged building parts play a central role. Within the scope of the project proposal "Functionalization of Zeolithic-like Frameworks as Nano-confinement for a selective Release of Active Components or Capture of Harmful Substances", these methods will be extended by synthesizing, functionalizing and using zeolite-like frameworks (nanoporous ZIF structures ) in order to selectively optimize the chemical and physical properties of concrete. Against this background, three different application strategies of ZIF structures should be examined in detail: The strategy “Release” aims at the controlled release of active substances into the structure of the building material (possible storage of CO2), whereas the strategy “Capture” targets undesired pollutants (dissolved ion species) in the pore fluid of the cement and capture/store them within the framework. As a third strategy “Insulation”, the effects of the microporous framework structures on the porosity and thus on the heat-insulating properties of the concrete are investigated.

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr. Franziska Ersoy (Institute of Food Chemistry)

    Title:

    Degradation of lignin-rich side-streams to gain valuable compounds using Basidiomycota

    Abstract:

    The agricultural sector in Lower Saxony produces large renewable side-streams, such as peels, pomaces, brans, fibres, and press cakes that are unsuitable for human consumption due to their high lignocellulosic content. These polyaromatic heterogeneous macromolecules make up around a third of the dry mass of lignified plants. For now, they are disposed of as fertilizer or burned. The project aims at a sustainable use of these materials following the bioeconomy concept.

    For this, higher fungi (Basidiomycota) are used to generate complex enzyme mixtures containing oxidoreductases and hydrolases, which can degrade even chemically extremely resistant materials like oak sawdust. These efficient enzyme-based bioprocesses use air oxygen as oxidizing agent and not only reduce the volume of the side-streams, but produce valuable substances for the food industry. In preliminary works, natural flavour compounds (vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde), antioxidants (cinnamic acid-derivatives), and preservatives (4-hydroxy benzoic acid esters) were identified. Environmentally critical acids, organic solvents, heavy metal salts, or high temperatures and pressures are not needed in contrast to conventional processes that are based on fossil resources. The projects plans a holistic approach: The best strains and cultivation conditions will be determined and the resultant compounds of value analysed. Based on this, the involved enzymes will be identified to enable a basis for industrial upscaling.

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr. Steven Gronau (Institute for Environmental Economics and World Trade)

    Title:

    Interrelations between refugee and host communities in rural Zambia: A dynamic agent-based modeling application

    Abstract:

    The number of refugees worldwide is on the rise and has recently reached the threshold of 26 million. Whereas media and policy often focus on influxes to Europe and the United States, developing countries actually host the large majority of 85% of all refugees: Africa accommodates more than one fourth of the world’s refugee population. Most of them are located in states neighboring their country of origin, accommodated in around 250 settlements. As camps are generally established in remote rural areas close to village communities, the sudden influx and presence of refugees affect host populations in various ways. This concerns for example the labor market, production, trade, price levels, public service provision, crime, natural resource uses, poverty and food security. Scientists indicate a great need for research on the impacts of refugees on their host population. In particular, innovative methodological approaches based on reliable data are required.

    The core goal of the project is to investigate the interrelations between refugee and host communities in rural Zambia in the context of the rising number of refugee movements and the corresponding challenge to create long-term solutions. The specific research objectives are to (1) improve the understanding of the socio-economic and environmental impacts of a refugee settlement on the host community, and (2) assess long-term development and system dynamics in refugee camp settings. Thereby, the project contributes to the emerging field of refugee-host community research.

    The research project focuses on a refugee camp in rural Zambia, where considerable refugee influxes from the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo are arriving. Currently, the settlement hosts more than 12,000 Congolese refugees, whereas the investigated host community comprises only around 1,600 people from eight villages around the settlement. Computer-based simulation models, namely agent-based models, are developed and applied for scientific analyses. The innovative approach explores complex systems by modeling agent-environment interactions and adaptive decision-making. The method also enables long-term assessments through predictive simulations and policy scenario analysis. Evaluations are based on household survey data, participatory research results and geographical information.

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr. Jil Ann-Christin Klünder (Institute of Practical Computer Science)

    Title:

    ComContA: Content-related Analysis of Communication in Groupchats of Software Development Teams

    Abstract:

    Due to the complexity and size of today's software projects, they are usually handled by development teams rather than by individual developers. For a good collaboration in the project team, adequate and sufficient communication is required, since false or insufficiently shared information can lead to missing functionality of the software and thus to a failure of the project.

    Several researchers proposed different ways to analyze communication behavior. Most of these approaches look at the structure of communication but not at its content. For meetings, there are approaches from psychology that have already been adapted for development teams and that show the value of a content-related analysis for the persons involved in the project. A first approach pursued in the field of software engineering promises a similar benefit in the automated content-related analysis of text-based communication by means of machine learning in group chats, which are commonly used for information transfer within the development team.

    Within the project "ComContA", we develop a concept to analyze the content of text-based communication in chats or e-mails in software projects to identify difficulties such as inappropriate communication at an early stage. For this purpose, methods of machine learning will be used to enable learning of the algorithm and thus the best possible results.

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr. phil. Moti Mathiebe (Institute of Psychology)

    Title:

    Text-based measurement of academic language skills in secondary school

    Abstract:

    Mastering the language of class instruction is an important requirement for success at school. Vocabulary as a part of academic language plays a central role for successful participation in education, but is up to now a neglected research area, while the term academic language is even one of the key words of the current political discourse about education. Up to now, within German language it remains unclear which linguistic means are part of academic language and how students gain such language skills during their time at school. Previous studies have primarily focused on receptive abilities within academic language and the primary school level. Academic vocabulary skills in secondary school level has not yet drawn much attention although these abilities are needed especially for the production of typical text types. Therefore, an ecologically valid diagnosis of academic-lexical language competence can only be derived in a text-oriented manner.

    While using a cross-sectional sample, the research project aims to investigate how the linguistic means of academic language, which are described in literature, are used depending on: text type (instructional text vs. argumentation), profile of the writing task (weakly vs. strongly profiled), family language (only German vs. not (only) German) and student’s grade (5th vs. 9th vs. 12th grade). The aim of the study is to examine the construct of academic language comprehensively and to refine it, if necessary. Furthermore, the goal is to show the course of acquisition of academic language skills in secondary school. This is why not only the writing products are considered, but also the writing process in itself (using a digital smartpen). The purpose of this comprehensive study is to deduce didactical implications to facilitate academic language competence.

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr. rer. nat. Vitalii Mutsenko (Institute for Multiphase Processes)

    Title:

    Electroporation-assisted biopreservation of 3D tissue-engineered constructs with improved heat transfer

    Abstract:

    Recent advancements in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering catalyze the development of healthcare and personalized medicine. In turn, rapid translation and commercialization of cell therapy and tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) is dependent on synergistic co-development of preservation strategies for their biobanking and shipment worldwide. In fact, cryopreservation bridges production and delivery of stem cell-based therapy to patients which increasingly makes it a lifesaving process.

    This project investigates a novel biopreservation strategy based on electroporation-assisted introduction of natural cryoprotective agents (CPAs) into human cells to completely eliminate animal-derived components and minimize the concentration of synthetic CPAs used in standard freezing solutions. Proof-of-concept will be established using biocompatible porous scaffolds. The scaffolds will be produced from the biodegradable polymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) using electrospinning and seeded with robust and clinically relevant human cells.

    Apart from clinical application, another rational behind this proposal is to establish biopreserved ready-to-use platform for preclinical drug development and disease modelling which will contribute to improved animal welfare according to the principles of 3Rs research (Replacement, Refinement and Reduction). Moreover, for translation of this innovative approach into commercially attractive tissue engineering field, packaging with improved heat transfer will be evaluated as well as Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for handling and storage of biopreserved TECs will be provided.

    To meet the clinical demand in high quality post-thaw characteristics of TECs, we will for the first time address the question of how a freezing procedure alters the cytokine profile of cells biopreserved within TECs. Finally, it is expected that through a transformative integrated approach and implementation of the project aims, a successful realization of a novel concept of the project will become feasible.

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr. rer. nat. Kerstin J. Schäfer (Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography)

    Title:

    Standardization of Automated Driving Technologies - An Opportunity for Market Entry of Emerging Regions?

    Abstract:

    Technical standards play a crucial role for the dominance of companies in global industries. A contribution to established standards generates bargaining power and influence in the industry. As an emerging technology, automated driving has the potential to create radical changes in the established structures of the automotive industry. The upcoming shift of competitive core technologies in this industry from creating combustion engines to developing software and machine learning algorithms might affect the location of industry hot spots in global production networks. This window of opportunity offers the potential for companies from regions that did not actively participate in standardization before to strengthen their position. This might enable a shift in technological leadership from established to emerging regions, if companies from these regions are able to utilize this opportunity.

    In order to shed light onto this spatial shift and the role of standardization, this project investigates upcoming standards in automated driving. Through the observation of standardization meetings, industry events and qualitative interviews with key actors, the project investigates the role of deciding bodies. A central question is if experts from all over the world are able to participate and which are the core regions that contribute to standardization in this field. Experts are identified on industry events as well as via standardization documents such as from the Standards Association des Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), to which the Leibniz University Hannover has access via the Technische Informationsbibliothek.

    The results will provide an overview on which regions contribute to automated driving technologies and show possible shifts in core technologies for the automotive industry. From a theoretical perspective, this creates new insights into shifts in technological leadership through technological change. From a methodological perspective, the project provides new knowledge about how researchers can utilize indicators from standardization documents to analyze the spatial patterns of technology development and industry leadership. From a political perspective, this project aims at showing how to support regional industries in making use of windows of opportunity and gaining influence on global standardization to foster regional economic development.

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr.-Ing. Mark Wielitzka (Institute of Mechatronic Systems)

    Title:

    Physical Modeling & Machine Learning: Symbiosis for the Optimization of Mechatronic Systems

    Abstract:

    In the past decades, model-based methods have led to a far-reaching increase in the quality of dynamic systems in engineering sciences and thus also in mechatronics. The frequently used physical modelling increases the understanding of the system and thus enables an improvement of the observer and control structures. The accuracy of the modelling is limited to the level of detail of the physical models. An increase in accuracy would only be possible with a higher level of detail and thus higher computational effort. An alternative approach to physical modelling is offered by machine learning methods. These methods can be used for modelling, but also directly for the observation and control of dynamic systems. They offer the potential to use the maximum information content of the available data of the respective system and thus to achieve an increase in accuracy. Thus, they enable a sudden improvement of the quality in these areas. However, the main disadvantages are the loss of physical interpretability of the models and the need for large amounts of data in most cases.

    In order to combine the advantages described above and to eliminate the disadvantages, a symbiosis of both methods is recommended. A hybrid use is exploited here, for example, to enable improved accuracy while retaining physical interpretability. The proportion of the respective procedure is variable and has to be chosen depending on the considered target and application. The goal is thus an optimization of mechatronic systems by adding machine learning methods. 

    The elaborated procedures are developed and analysed on two different test benches. On the one hand, a basic system is examined using an inverse double pendulum. On the other hand, an electrically driven series vehicle serves as an application-oriented test vehicle. Depending on the test bench, different target values are addressed and the corresponding combination of methods is optimized. Finally, the methods are transferred to the real-time systems of the test benches. Finally, the developed approaches are compared with existing methods and the improved quality is shown.

    Duration: 24 Month

SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS FROM 2018

  • Dr. Dorothee Bühler (Institute for Environmental Economics and World Trade)

    Title:

    Boon or bane of infrastructure investment in the Mekong Region – Using household panel and remote sensing data to analyze the effects for rural households

    Abstract:

    In the last decade the Mekong Region in Southeast Asia has made remarkable progress in reducing poverty. However, rural households continue to generate their income largely from agriculture and environmental resource extraction. In an effort to stimulate economic development and reduce poverty further, governments invest in infrastructure utilizing the natural resources of the Mekong River by building hydroelectric power plants. This expansion in infrastructure brings both benefits as well as challenges for rural households living along the Mekong. While households may benefit from better marked access, energy availability and economic growth it is unclear how the ecosystem changes affect rural livelihoods especially with regards to fish stocks and agricultural activity. The proposed research project aims to identify and analyze the effect of infrastructure developments along the Mekong River and its tributaries on small-scale farming and fishing households in Stung Treng, Cambodia. The project will use socio-economic panel data to analyze the effects of the infrastructure expansion and combine it with measures of environmental degradation and water pollution based on remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data. 

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr. Clemens Hübler (Institute of Structural Analysis)

    Title:

    Fundierte Metamodellbildung stochastischer, geregelter Strukturen am Beispiel von Windenergieanlagen (MetaWind)

    Abstract:

    Smart systems, which mostly come from the field of communication technology and which consist of a combination of networked, regulatable or controllable, sensory and intelligent subsystems, have been omnipresent in the media in recent years. Smart systems have actually been around for years in a wide variety of engineering fields. In civil engineering, for example, these are wind turbines with networked elements of measurement and control technology. For an economical and reliable design of these systems, their simulation is necessary. Due to the non-linear, stochastic and controlled behaviour of such systems, the required computing power can be uneconomically high. In this case, substitution models, so-called metamodels, can be used to approximate the system behavior. Although such metamodels are already widely used today, their accuracy and efficiency have been limited or at least scarcely comprehensively analyzed in complex systems. Therefore, this research project addresses this research gap and develops well-founded metamodels for wind turbines based on a comprehensive comparison of different variants.

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr.-Ing. Marc Müller (Institute for Multiphase Processes)

    Title:

    Patient-specific implants from autologous blood donations

    Abstract:

    Diseases of the cardiovascular system are the main cause of all deaths in Germany. However, an efficient therapy of diseased blood vessels with suitable implants still poses a great challenge. The available synthetic implants have limited biocompatibility and reproduce the mechanical properties of the native vessels only to a limited extent.

    The project aims at the development of a standardized and automated process for the production of patient-specific vascular implants using autologous blood donations. In the first phase, process steps will be developed which include separation of the blood components and lysis of the thrombocytes. The purified protein solution is processed into a highly porous tubular carrier structure using polymer processing techniques. A novel process for the biological cross-linking of proteins is integrated into the process. Based on suitable mechanical and biological test methods, the optimal process parameters are determined. The result is a completely autologous and therefore patient-specific implant with ideal biocompatibility and biomechanics. Finally, a concept for the production of a device is developed which carries out all process steps automatically. This forms the basis for translating the developed technology into clinical application and basic clinical research.

    Duration: 24 Month

  • Dr. Heike Wadepohl (Institute of Education for Special Needs)

    Title:

    Target child related interaction quality in child day care facilities (ZIK)

    Abstract:

    (Inter-)National findings on the discussion of the quality of early educational institutions identify the design of interactions and their quality in day-to-day day-care as an essential influencing factor on childhood social-emotional, motivational and cognitive developmental measures.

    There is increasing reference to concrete strategies and interaction formats, whose use in day-care centres should contribute to improving children's skills. Adaptive use of these strategies, tailored to the individual requirements of each child, is regarded as a central prerequisite for success in high-quality pedagogical work, particularly against the background of increasing heterogeneity and the associated different levels of development of the children in the kindergarten groups. It is therefore all the more astonishing that the current (quantitative) approaches to recording the quality of interaction take only little account of this individualised perspective on the individual child, but mostly assess the quality of interaction at the level of the child group and thus suggest that each child is involved in a similar number of interactions within the "group room" and benefits from them in the same way.

    This is where the ZIK research project aims to capture the quality of interaction from an individualized perspective. The aim is to characterise and compare the differential interaction quality in a group on the basis of the observation of individual children and to examine possible influencing factors on the part of the children, the specialists and the context on the respective interaction quality.

    Duration: 24 Month

SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS FROM 2017

  • Dr. Christine Beckerle (Institute of Special Education)

    Title:

    Neu immigrierte Kinder in der Kita (NIKK) - Alltagsintegrierte Unterstützung der kindlichen Sprachentwicklung durch pädagogische Fachkräfte.

    Abstract:

    Gegenwärtig gibt es in Deutschland immer mehr Kinder aus anderen Kultur- und Sprachkreisen; viele sind erst kürzlich eingewandert, haben in ihrem Heimatland erschwerte Lebensbedingungen erfahren und stehen nun vor der Aufgabe, sich in einem neuen Land einzufinden. Diese Kinder besuchen Kindertagesstätten, in denen sie bestmöglich von pädagogischen Fachkräften in ihrer Entwicklung begleitet und gefördert werden. Eine besondere Rolle spielt hier die alltagsintegrierte Unterstützung der kindlichen Sprachentwicklung, da diese Kinder häufig über keine bzw. nur geringe Deutschkenntnisse verfügen. Die sprachliche Arbeit mit neu immigrierten Kindern stellt eine besondere Anforderung an pädagogische Fachkräfte dar, da sie spezifische Kompetenzen u.a. in den Bereichen Sprachdiagnostik, Sprachförderplanung und Gestaltung der Sprachförderung bei Kindern mit Deutsch als Zweitsprache und Migrations- bzw. Fluchterfahrung erfordert. Zudem gibt es noch wenige Erkenntnisse darüber, wie solch eine Förderung bei dieser Zielgruppe bestmöglich gestaltet werden kann, um die Bildungschancen dieser Kinder zu erhöhen.

    Ziel des Projekts ist es, die alltagsintegrierte sprachliche Unterstützung neu immigrierter Kinder durch pädagogische Fachkräfte in Kindertagesstätten zu erforschen. Über Videoanalysen von pädagogischen Alltagssituationen sollen relevante Kompetenzen auf Seiten der Fachkräfte sowie mögliche Gelingensbedingungen für eine an die kindlichen Voraussetzungen angepasste (adaptive) sprachliche Unterstützung identifiziert und Impulse für Weiterqualifizierungsangebote in diesem Bereich gewonnen werden.

    Duration: 24 Months

  • Dr. Mingjia Chen (Institute of Plant Nutrition)

    Title:

    RNA Methylation in Plants and Man: The Catabolism of modified Nucleotides from RNA decay by N6-methy-AMP Aminohydrolase.

    Abstract:

    RNA post-transcriptional modification mostly by methylation is a newly emerging highly dynamic field of research. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in messenger RNAs of eukaryotic species. It modulates mRNA characteristics influencing RNA processing, translation and RNA decay. So far, the fate of modified nucleotides after RNA degradation has not been elucidated for any altered nucleotide in any organism. We identified and partially characterized a novel enzyme, N6-methyl-AMP (N6-mAMP) aminohydrolase, which clears the methyl marker from N6-mAMP. Corresponding mutants accumulate N6-mAMP in vivo. This is the first enzyme discovered to be involved in the catabolism of modified nucleotides in any organism. We propose to further investigate the relationship of N6-mAMP catabolism and RNA m6A dynamics in plants and in human cells. We will extend our research towards establishing methods for the detection of other modified nucleotides derived from mRNA such as N1-mAMP and pseudouridine and to elucidate their metabolic fate. We envisage that defective removal or end-storage of modified nucleotides may have profound effects on the homeostasis of RNA modification.

    Duration: 16 Months

  • Dr. Arndt Claußen (Institute of Banking and Finance)

    Title:

    Frailty risk in the cross-section of credit default swap spreads

    Abstract:

    Understanding the correlation structure of corporate defaults is of predominant importance for the stability of our economy. Recently, it became apparent that unobserved factors, common to all corporates, drive correlated defaults. This exposure to an unobserved factor is known as frailty risk. Since Credit default swaps (CDS) are derivatives to hedge against defaults, they are closely linked to an entity’s probability of default (PD) and the potentially priced frailty risk.

    In a first step, we improve analyses of CDS spreads in the recent literature by using timely PD estimates instead of using Credit Ratings which only change infrequently. This allows for analyzing CDS spreads with more precision. Still, preliminary work shows that known factors (macroeconomic variables as well as entity specific variables) leave a high portion of variation unexplained. In a second step, therefore, a new estimation technique is developed to decompose unexplained CDS spreads into a latent common factor – the frailty risk factor – and idiosyncratic parts as well as their respective loadings. A key question is whether frailty risk is consistently priced in the cross section of CDS spreads.

    The results of this project are of great importance for both academics and practitioners alike. From an academic perspective, understanding the pricing of CDS spreads is one way to assess market efficiency and thereby to judge the efficiency of the economy’s resource allocation mechanism. Practitioners face new accounting rules (IFRS 9) which require a timely PD estimation throughout the lifetime of the entity’s life cycle. Quantifying frailty risk is an important step for yielding such timely PD estimates. In particular, this project has great potential to acquire third party funding from the DFG and the banking industry.

    Duration: 21 Months

  • Dr.-Ing. Marc Dittrich (Institut für Fertigungstechnik und Werkzeugmaschinen)

    Title:

    Simulationsbasierte Kompensation von 5-Achs-Fräsprozessen.

    Abstract:

    Freiformflächen sind elementarer Bestandteil vieler spanend gefertigter Bauteile und beispielsweise bei Implantaten, Formwerkzeugen und Turbinenschaufeln zu finden. Für die Bearbeitung von Freiformflächen werden 5-Achs-Fräsprozesse mit Kugelkopffräsern eingesetzt. Da die Maßhaltigkeit der Freiformflächen häufig direkt die Funktionalität beeinflusst, werden insbesondere an die Schlichtbearbeitung hohe Anforderungen im Hinblick auf den zulässigen Formfehler gestellt. Eine besondere Herausforderung bei der Schlichtbearbeitung ist das ungleichmäßige Aufmaß, das aus dem vorherigen Prozessschritt resultiert. Hierdurch kommt es zu wechselnden Eingriffsverhältnissen im Prozess. Letztendlich führt dies zu einer variierenden Werkzeugabdrängung, welche die Funktionalität des gefertigten Bauteils bestimmt.

    Das Vorhaben hat zum Ziel, eine Methode zur Abdrängungskompensation bei der 5-Achs-Bearbeitung mit Kugelkopffräsern zu erforschen. Eine Herausforderung stellt die Beschreibung der lokalen Eingriffsverhältnisse des fünfachsigen Fräsprozesses dar. Im beantragten Vorhaben wird daher eine neuartige Beschreibungsmethode entwickelt, die im weiteren Verlauf des Projekts eine lokale Zuordnung von Eingriffsverhältnissen und Formabweichung erlaubt. Mittels Methoden des maschinellen Lernens werden die gemessenen Formfehler mit den Eingriffsbedingungen korreliert und ein System zur Abdrängungsprognose und -kompensation realisiert.

    Duration: 24 Months

  • Dr. Ulla Licandro (Institute of Special Education)

    Title:

    NIKK - Neu immigrierte Kinder in der KiTa: Erfassung individueller Spracherwerbswege und ihre Kontextfaktoren.

    Abstract:

    Aufgrund der stark gestiegenen Anzahl neu immigrierter Kinder ist die Frage nach ihrer optimalen Sprachbildung und Sprachförderung zu einem zunehmend relevanten Thema der Fachpolitik und -praxis geworden, das nicht mehr nur einzelne Bezirke und Kindertageseinrichtungen (Kitas) betrifft. In der Praxis kann man beobachten, dass viele Kinder sehr schnell lernen und sich schon nach wenigen Monaten gut auf Deutsch verständigen können. Andere weisen auch nach längerer Zeit große Schwierigkeiten mit dem Gebrauch der Zweitsprache auf. Auf Seiten der frühpädagogischen Fachkräften herrscht Unsicherheit im Umgang mit diesen Kindern; davon betroffen sind insbesondere die Einschätzung der sprachlichen Fähigkeiten und die daraus resultierenden Handlungsempfehlungen für sprachunterstützende Maßnahmen.

    Das vorliegende Projekt versteht den Erwerb der neuen Sprache als Schlüssel zur gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe und zum zukünftigen Bildungserfolg und strebt die systematische Dokumentation individueller Spracherwerbswege drei- bis sechsjähriger neu immigrierter Kinder in Kitas an. Im Laufe eines Jahres werden dafür im Längsschnitt zu mehreren Testzeitpunkten die sprachlichen Fähigkeiten der Kinder in unterschiedlichen Settings erhoben. Die zusätzliche Dokumentation und Analyse von Kontextfaktoren bezüglich der Kinder, Familien, frühpädagogischen Einrichtungen und Fachkräfte soll die Komplexität des Erwerbsprozesses abbilden und Schlüsselfaktoren identifizieren, die den Deutschspracherwerb neu immigrierter Kinder beeinflussen. Weiterhin werden Sprachstandserhebungen mit Einschätzungen des sprachlichen Verhaltens der Kinder durch die pädagogischen Fachkräfte abgeglichen. Im Sinne einer inklusiven und kultursensitiven Frühpädagogik bilden die Projektergebnisse eine wichtige Grundlage für eine zielgruppenadäquate Sprachbildung und Sprachförderung neu immigrierter Kinder.

    Duration: 24 Months

  • Dr. Mark Minnes (Romanisches Seminar)

    Title:

    Transatlantische Theorienetzwerke: Akteure, Texte und Strukturen im 20. Jahrhundert

    Abstract:

    Ob in beruflichen Zusammenhängen, in der Politik oder im Privaten: Konzept und Praxis der ‚sozialen Netzwerke‘ haben seit Beginn des neuen Jahrtausends und unter neuen technischen Rahmenbedingungen eine unerhörte Konjunktur. In den Geisteswissenschaften hat parallel dazu die Faszination für die Materialität ihrer Gegenstände, Produktionsbedingungen und sozialen Relationen sowie neue, digitale Methodenfelder (digital humanities) zugenommen. Das Projekt erprobt, inwieweit diese Paradigmen dazu geeignet sind, literarische und theoretische Textproduktion als eine historisch tradierte Manifestation ‚sozialer Netzwerke‘ zu beleuchten – und welche Paradigmen sich kritisch davon abgrenzen (z.B. ‚Systeme‘, ‚Familien(ähnlichkeit)‘ oder kunstwissenschaftliche Begriffe). Daher wird in drei modular aufeinander bezogenen Arbeitsbereichen untersucht, inwiefern literarische Schreibformen als relationale Beziehungsmodelle lesbar werden (Widmung, Zitat, Kommentierung, threads, links) – und umgekehrt. Der Begriff des ‚Transatlantischen‘ verweist hier darauf, dass Akteure im 20. Jahrhundert in verschiedenen Migrationswellen den Atlantik überquerten und daher ihre lebensweltlichen, theoretischen und ästhetischen Projekte in neue kulturelle Kontexte versetzen mussten. Transatlantische Theorienetzwerke untersucht also nicht nur, wie der Zusammenhang zwischen lebensweltlicher und virtueller (d.h. hier: textueller) Vernetzung beschrieben werden kann. Es fragt auch, welche Konsequenzen Migration und Exil für diesen Konnex haben.

    Duration: 18 Months

  • Dr.-Ing. Alexander Wolf (Institut für Produktentwicklung und Gerätebau)

    Title:

    Aufbau eines Simulationsmodells für étendueerhaltende Beleuchtungsoptiken

     

    Abstract:

    In unterschiedlichsten Produkten wie Smartphonekameras, Fahrzeugscheinwerfern und laserbasierter Messtechnik kommen optische Elemente wie Linsen und Spiegel zum Einsatz, welche ausgelegt, gefertigt und justiert werden müssen. Zurzeit werden für die Auslegung stark vereinfachte Modelle genutzt, welche sich gut für die rechnergestützte Optimierung eignen. Durch die getroffenen Vereinfachungen lassen sich jedoch systemrelevante Größen wie beispielsweise der Wirkungsgrad nur eingeschränkt bewerten. Darüber hinaus werden für spezielle Fragestellungen eigenständige und komplexe Modelle genutzt, die eine Vielzahl von Randbedingungen und äußeren Einflüssen berücksichtigen, sich jedoch schlecht verallgemeinern lassen und bei denen Optimierungsrechnungen entsprechend aufwändig sind.

    Ziel dieses Projektes ist es, eine Simulationsumgebung aufzubauen, in welcher die effiziente Optimierung der sogenannten sequentiellen Strahlverfolgung mit einem nichtsequentiellen Ansatz gekoppelt wird, welcher eine Bewertung weiterer optischer Größen wie Wirkungsgrad und geometrischer Verteilung der Strahlungsintensität zulässt. Während Ersterer zu Gunsten der Rechenzeit auf starken Vereinfachungen basiert und beispielsweise eine Linse auf zwei Flächen reduziert kann sie in Letzterem mit allen ihren geometrischen Größen wie den Anbindungspunkten zu einem umgebenden Gehäuse berücksichtigt werden. Durch die Kombination beider Ansätze wird die effiziente Auslegung und Optimierung von abbildenden, étendueerhaltenden Optiken mit hohem Wirkungsgrad möglich. In einem zweiten Schritt soll eine Anbindung der Simulationsumgebung an ein CAD-System geschaffen werden, um zusätzlich fertigungsbedingte Oberflächeneigenschaften in der Optimierung berücksichtigen zu können.

    Das im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens zu entwickelnde Simulationskonzept stellt ein wichtiges Werkzeug zur Auslegung effizienter Beleuchtungssysteme, beispielsweise für zukünftige Anwendungen in der Automobillichttechnik, der Messtechnik sowie dem medizinischen Gerätebau, dar.

    Duration: 12 Months

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Address
Brühlstraße 27
30169 Hannover
Building
Room
110